Dates, Numbers, and Time


When a month is used with a specific date, use it this way:

Jan. 1 Feb. 1 March 1 April 1 May 1 June 1
July 1 Aug. 1 Sept. 1 Oct. 1 Nov. 1 Dec. 1

Spell out the name of the month when using it alone or with a year. When using a month and a year together, do not separate them with commas. When a phrase contains month, date and year, follow the date and the year with commas.

Right: January 2012
Right: Jan. 24
Right: Jan. 13, 2012
Right: He was born Jan. 13, 2012, in Macon, Ga.

Use an en dash to indicate a span of years. You may either drop the first two digits of the second year or keep all four. Whatever you do, stay consistent. Restrict use of the apostrophe (pointing down and to the left) to class years and alumni degrees. (See Academic Degrees and Alumni Abbreviations for more information.) If the years span a century change, always use all four numbers of the second year.

Right: Jerry Trickie was the associat eathletics director for communications from 2013-15.
Right 1979-81, 1979-2002
Right: 1979-1981, 1979-2002
Wrong: 2009-’12, ’09-’12

Do not use the word “on” before a date or day of the week when its absence would not lead to confusion. Using “in” before a month is optional.

Right: The meeting will be held Monday.
Right: He will be inagurated Feb. 22.
Right: The program ends in December.
Right: The program ends December 2017.

To describe sequences of dates, inclusive dates or other types of ranges, use an en dash instead of the words “to” or “through.” If preferred, you may add a single space to either side of the en dash.

Right: The box office is open Monday-Friday.
Right: The performance will run Sept. 14-22.
Right: The program supports K-12 educators.

Do not use ordinal suffixes with dates.

Right: Oct. 14
Wrong: Oct. 14th

Use an “s” without an apostrophe after a year to indicate a decade. Neither spell out decades, nor abbreviate them to their last two digits. You may use an apostrophe (pointing down and to the left) only before class years to indicate the first two numbers of the year are omitted.

Right: The university was formed in the 1910s.
Right: She belonged to the Class of 1924.
Right: Shannon will graduate with the Class of ’03.
Wrong: The ‘60s were famous for hippies, flower power and the peace movement.
Wrong: the fourties, the Sixties

An apostrophe after the year is needed for possessives.

Right: The presidential election was 1980’s biggest news story.


Spell out fractions less than one, using hyphens between words and no spaces. Use numerals for precise amounts larger than one, converting to decimals when appropriate.

Right: one-half, two-thirds
Right: 1.5 liters
Right: one and one-half liters


Use the appropriate currency symbol and numerals. Do not use a decimal and two zeros for whole dollar amounts.

Right: $150
Right: $150.25
Wrong: $150.00

For dollar amounts beyond thousands, use the dollar sign, number and appropriate word.

Right: $14 million
Wrong: $14,000,000


Spell out numbers zero through nine. Use numerals for all numbers 10 and above. Do not use superscripts for ordinal suffixes in text, but use whatever looks best in graphic design. Exceptions are noted below.

Right: nine poodles, four miles
Right: 16 buildings
Right: 15th highest, 21st Street, Sixth Avenue
Right: He teaches ninth grade.

Use numerals for ages, percentages, equipment specifications, page numbers and sums of money (when using the symbol “$”).

Right: She has a daughter, 2, and a son, 8.
Right: 8 megabytes, 240 RAM
Right: According to the chart on page 4, nearly half of the elementary-age children in Georgia receive a $5 weekly allowance.

For numbers of more than three digits, use a comma after every third digit from right to left.

Right: $1000
Right: Piedmont Central will provide housing for 1,100 students.
Wrong: $1000

For numbers beyond thousands that do not involve currency, spell out numbers under 10, and use the appropriate word to describe the quantity.

Right: Nearly three million people live in Chicago.
Right: Apple sold more than 590 million iPhones between 2007-14.
Wrong: According to the United States Department of Agriculture, an estimated 133,000,000,000 pounds of food went uneaten in 2010.

Avoid starting sentences with numbers; however, if you must, spell out the number unless it’s a year.

Right: Twenty students registered.
Right: 1914 was an important year.


Always use numerals (including the numbers 0–9) and spell out the word “percent” in text. “Percent” takes a singular verb when standing alone. When it’s followed by the preposition “of,” use a verb that agrees with the object of the preposition: use a singular verb if the object is singular, and use a plural verb if the object is plural.

Right: Only 8 percent of the class voted.
Right: He believes 50 percent is enough.
Right: He believes 60 percent of the membership is coming.
Right: He believes 60 percent of the members are coming.

Use the percent symbol (%) only in charts or figures and in academic, statistical or technical writing.


Use the abbreviation “No.” before a numeral when writing about rankings. If a ranking works best with words like “most” or “best,” you may use ordinal numbers instead, such as “fifth most innovative” and “14th best.” (Heed conventions for using numbers in text found in Numbers) Do not use the pound symbol (#) in text, but allowances can be made for graphic design call-outs.

Right: Georgia State University is ranked the No. 5 most innovative university in the nation.
Right: Georgia State’s College of Law has the sixth best health law program in the United States.
Wrong: Georgia State has the nation’s #14 most diverse student body.

Telephone Numbers

If a publication is strictly for use on campus, you may omit the area code and first two digits. Use the “3” followed by a hyphen and the four-digit extension.

Right: Call us at 3-3151.

If the publication may or will be sent off campus, include the area code as part of the complete number. Use a hyphen between the area code and number. When using telephone numbers for publication, you may wish to check for accuracy by calling the number before the final edit.

Right: 404-413-2000
Wrong: 404/471-2000

If you use more than one number, separate them with the word “or” in text or with a slash in an address listing. When providing telephone, fax and cell phone numbers in an address listing, identify each.

Right: Call me at 404-413-3025/1357.
Right: Phone: 404-471-3151
Fax: 404-471-5812
Cell: 678-656-8139


Use lowercase with periods for “a.m.” and “p.m.” When writing a time that falls on the hour, do not use “:00.” Simply state the hour with “a.m.,” “p.m.” or “o’clock.” Use “noon” and “midnight,” never “12 p.m.” or “12 a.m.” To designate a range of time, use an en dash. If preferred, you may add a single space to either side of the en dash.

Right: 3 p.m.
Right:3-5 p.m.
Right: 9 a.m. – 5 p.m.
Right: Noon-1 p.m.
Right: The concert begins at 8:30 p.m.
Right: The concert begins at 8 o’clock.
Wrong: 3:00 p.m.
Wrong: 3 p.m.-5 p.m.
Wrong: 12 noon, 12 p.m.
Wrong: 12 midnight, 12 a.m.

When designating a time of day along with its date and day of the week, follow this sequence: day of week, date, time of day.

Right: Wednesday, Sept. 8, at 2 p.m.